Born in Mexico City, Villalpando is believed to have been trained at the atelier of Diego de Mendoza, a well-known artist from Puebla. He was a contemporary of Juan Tinoco and Juan Correa, both of whom collaborated with Villalpando in painting the murals at the Catedral Metropolitana. It is also possible that Villalpando was an apprentice at the studio of Baltasar Echave Rioja, who is known to have been a close friend and godfather of his son. Villalpando is highly regarded among the Colonial painters as his work represents the epitome of the Mexican Baroque (1650-1720). His best known works are the ceilings of the cupula at the Puebla Cathedral, and the Apocalipsis de San Juan at the Cathedral in Mexico City.